RESEARCH AT RGSL / PRIV-WAR – Regulating Privatisation of “War”: the Role of the EU in Assuring Compliance with International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

Researchers: Ineta Ziemele, Ieva Miluna, Sandija Novicka, Signe Zaharova, Ugis Zeltins, Ieva Kalnina, Edmunds Broks

Period: 2008 - 2010

PRIV-WAR was a collaborative research project coordinated by the European University Institute through the Academy of European Law in cooperation with LUISS “Guido Carli” (Rome) and the other project partners: Justus Liebig Universität Giessen; Riga Graduate School of Law; Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris II), Centre Thucydide; University of Sheffield and Utrecht University. The project has assessed the impact of the increasing use of private military companies and security companies (PMCs/PSCs) in situations of armed conflict. It has examined the regulatory framework at national, European and international levels, and it has made Recommendations for the European Union with a view to ensuring improved compliance with international humanitarian law and human rights. Launched in January 2008, the project was concluded in August 2011.

More information here:

Two books have been published based on the PRIV-WAR research:

Francesco Francioni and Natalino Ronzitt (eds.), War By Contract: Human Rights, Humanitarian Law and Private Contractors, Oxford University Press, 2011.

Christine Bakker and Mirko Sossai (eds.), Multilevel Regulation of Military and Security Contractors: The Interplay between International, European and Domestic Norms, Hart Publishing, 2012

Working papers, Reports on national legislation and case law, Events reports are available here: